Analytes of Interest and Choice of Dose: Two Important Considerations in the Design of Bioequivalence Studies with Atorvastatin. Kuan Gandelman, Bimal. It is important to select an appropriate medication and dose based on individualized pharmacokinetic considerations: one must evaluate a patient's age , size. Key words: allometry, dose selection, pediatrics, population In this paper, we focus on dosing implications of the allometric size model for.
Considerations Regarding Dosage Important
Difficulty swallowing tablets and capsules can be a problem for many. Individuals who find it difficult to swallow tablets and capsules frequently cite the size as the main reason for the difficulty in swallowing. With this in mind, it is important to pay attention to the design of the tablet before production, not only for the end-user, but it is also important to the final quality of the tablet and ease of production.
Tablets are becoming more complex in both shape and profile for brand identity and marketing purposes. As the tablets become more complicated, so does the tooling, increasing the demand upon tooling strength, durability and overall performance. The correct tablet shape and profile is key in finding a successful end product that can be easily manufactured. There are two basic tablet shapes, round and non-round.
Non-round shapes are extremely varied and designs may require specialised tool manufacturing capability. Choosing the wrong shape or a shape that has been badly designed can have a huge impact on the bottom-line as problems like sticking and picking can result from this and will delay production.
Once a workable base shape has been decided, tablet size must be determined. Consideration should be given to the type of press available as this can limit the size of the tablet. Also, is it possible to produce the tablets using multi tip tooling? Multi tips can accommodate most tablet designs, but this is influenced by the press and tool type capabilities.
You must look at the tablet size to evaluate the number of tips to fit the punch; some shapes can be more challenging to arrange so that they take off cleanly and efficiently.
Tablet profile is the next important consideration. The profile is affected by a variety of aspects, from the granule being used and the influence it has on the tooling, through to the embossing requirements, and coating process.
If the design is to be heavily embossed it is important to avoid tablet profiles with a deep cup, such as the ball or pill.
It will also reduce the available space for the embossing itself. Using a profile that is shallower, with a reduced cup depth, will allow for a larger embossing area. Do you require a coating on the tablet? A coating may be aesthetic or intrinsic but can also help in swallowability, and so this requirement should be incorporated during the initial design.
Successful coating is largely dependent on tablet profile. As discussed the centre of a tablet is normally softer, so during the coating process core erosion may take place.
For most patients, administering eye drops does not come as naturally as applying a cream or swallowing a pill. Many report difficulty with correct eye drop administration, leading them to misuse drops, or to abandon using them altogether. The volume of the conjunctival sac is smaller than a drop from most commercial droppers. Therefore, the administration of multiple drops per treatment is, at best, an unnecessary waste and, at worst, a potentially harmful practice, because the risk of side effects increases when excess drug drains into the nasolacrimal system and is systemically absorbed.
For many patients, the importance of post-surgical eye drops is not obvious. This is particularly true now, in a time where modern surgical techniques allow patients to return home almost immediately. Even when patients are aware of the importance of following postoperative guidelines, many of them have not been educated about proper eye drop storage and administration:.
They do not ask patients how the medications are stored, whether patients rely on others for administration, and how patients actually place the medication on the eye. These issues may be related to the relative success or failure of new eye drop bottle designs as well as the success of currently prescribed therapies. For most patients, using eye drops multiple times is not a habit engrained in their daily regimen.
Many patients may forget to administer eye drops regularly. Moreover, some patients seem not to realize that they are forgetting to use their eye drops:.
I am sure a lot of them believe that, but we know it is not true. A final common barrier to post-surgical eye drop use is that some patients find it unpleasant to administer eye drops, and thus avoid doing so. It is important to note that the studies cited above were all conducted in Western populations, with patients who generally have health insurance and regular access to medical care.
This population is vastly different from those patients living in extreme poverty in the developing world. Because they are less familiar with regular health care and medical treatments, it is likely that the patient population in developing countries is even more prone to non-compliance with postoperative protocol.
Successful treatment and effectiveness depends on the proper administration of the medication, which requires education. Healthcare providers must make it blatantly clear to patients that the success of their surgery depends on their compliance with postoperative protocol. In addition to educating patients about the importance of eye drops, a crucial role of the healthcare provider is to explain and instruct each patient on the proper use of the eye drops that are prescribed.
The healthcare provider should emphasize to the patient that he or she must use the medication exactly as prescribed by the doctor. It is also important to thoroughly explain how to administer eye drops correctly. The proper technique for using eye drops is explained in detail below: Then, without touching the dropper tip to any ocular structures, position it above the eye by direct visualization.
Just before releasing a drop, look upward. Allow the drop to settle by gravity into the lower cul-de-sac before releasing the eyelid. With the drop in place, close the eyelids and apply pressure to the nasolacrimal duct or forced eyelid closure for at least 2 minutes to minimize drainage and systemic absorption. Finally, it is important to follow up with patients to ensure that they are indeed using their prescribed eye drops.
When asking patients about their compliance, be careful to avoid an accusatory tone. Instead, present open-ended questions and statements about their recovery process. Give the patient an opportunity to voice some concerns and tell you a problem.
Design is key: What are the important considerations in tablet production?
bioavailable dosage forms with safety consideration. Pre-formulation investigations intended is an important factor for selection of dosages form and route of. Keep these considerations in mind if your doctor Space your doses of this medication evenly throughout the day. If you take it more than once per day, space your doses out Steroids such as prednisone change the amount of water.