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Why CBD Oil for Pain? Here’s the research i have done:

CO2 Extraction Supercritical

jayme13
27.06.2018

Content:

  • CO2 Extraction Supercritical
  • There was a problem providing the content you requested
  • Key advantages of the supercritical CO2 extraction
  • Supercritical CO2 extraction (SCFE) is a safe method of efficient botanical extraction using a clean, non-toxic solvent ideal for cannabis, hops and more. Supercritical CO2 was applied to obtain extracts with high cannabinoids concentration. •. Different operating conditions and regimes were evaluated. Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) is the process of separating one component ( the extractant) Extraction conditions for supercritical carbon dioxide are above the critical temperature of 31 °C and critical pressure of 74 bar. Addition of.

    CO2 Extraction Supercritical

    It can use simpler, single casing body designs while steam turbines require multiple turbine stages and associated casings, as well as additional inlet and outlet piping. The high density allows for highly compact, microchannel-based heat exchanger technology. It requires less compression and allows heat transfer. It reaches full power in 2 minutes, whereas steam turbines need at least 30 minutes.

    Further, due to its superior thermal stability and non-flammability, direct heat exchange from high temperature sources is possible, permitting higher working fluid temperatures and therefore higher cycle efficiency. Despite the promise of substantially higher efficiency and lower capital costs, the use of s CO 2 presents material selection and design issues. Materials in power generation components must display resistance to damage caused by high-temperature , oxidation and creep.

    Candidate materials that meet these property and performance goals include incumbent alloys in power generation, such as nickel-based superalloys for turbomachinery components and austenitic stainless steels for piping. Components within s CO 2 Brayton loops suffer from corrosion and erosion, specifically erosion in turbomachinery and recuperative heat exchanger components and intergranular corrosion and pitting in the piping.

    Testing has been conducted on candidate Ni-based alloys, austenitic steels, ferritic steels and ceramics for corrosion resistance in s CO 2 cycles.

    Given the volume of carbon fuels used in producing electricity, the environmental impact of cycle efficiency increases would be significant.

    Supercritical CO 2 is an emerging natural refrigerant, used in new, low carbon solutions for domestic heat pumps. Supercritical CO 2 heat pumps are commercially marketed in Asia.

    EcoCute systems from Japan, developed by Mayekawa, develop high temperature domestic water with small inputs of electric power by moving heat into the system from the surroundings. Supercritical CO 2 has been used since the s to enhance recovery in mature oil fields. Using gasifiers instead of conventional furnaces, coal and water is reduced to hydrogen gas, carbon dioxide and ash.

    This hydrogen gas can be used to produce electrical power In combined cycle gas turbines, CO 2 is captured, compressed to the supercritical state and injected into geological storage, possibly into existing oil fields to improve yields. The unique properties of s CO 2 ensure that it remains out of the atmosphere. Supercritical CO 2 could be used as a working fluid in enhanced geothermal systems. Possible advantages compared to water include higher energy yield resulting from its lower viscosity, better chemical interaction, CO 2 storage through fluid loss and higher temperature limit.

    As of , the concept had not been tested in the field. Supercritical carbon dioxide is used in the production of silica, carbon and metal based aerogels. For example, silicon dioxide gel is formed and then exposed to s CO 2. When the CO 2 goes supercritical, all surface tension is removed, allowing the liquid to leave the aerogel and produce nanometer sized pores. Supercritical CO 2 is an alternative for terminal sterilization of biological materials and medical devices with combination of the additive peracetic acid PAA.

    Supercritical CO 2 does not sterilize the media, because it does not kill the spores of microorganisms. Food grade modifiers such as ethanol can often be used, and can also help in the collection of the extracted material, but reduces some of the benefits of using a solvent which is gaseous at room temperature.

    The system must contain a pump for the CO 2 , a pressure cell to contain the sample, a means of maintaining pressure in the system and a collecting vessel. The liquid is pumped to a heating zone, where it is heated to supercritical conditions. It then passes into the extraction vessel, where it rapidly diffuses into the solid matrix and dissolves the material to be extracted.

    The dissolved material is swept from the extraction cell into a separator at lower pressure, and the extracted material settles out. The CO 2 can then be cooled, re-compressed and recycled, or discharged to atmosphere.

    The solvent is pumped as a liquid as it is then almost incompressible; if it were pumped as a supercritical fluid, much of the pump stroke would be "used up" in compressing the fluid, rather than pumping it.

    For larger scale extractions, diaphragm pumps are most common. The pump heads will usually require cooling, and the CO 2 will also be cooled before entering the pump. Pressure vessels can range from simple tubing to more sophisticated purpose built vessels with quick release fittings. The pressure requirement is at least 74 bar, and most extractions are conducted at under bar. However, sometimes higher pressures will be needed, such as extraction of vegetable oils, where pressures of bar are sometimes required for complete miscibility of the two phases.

    The vessel must be equipped with a means of heating. It can be placed inside an oven for small vessels, or an oil or electrically heated jacket for larger vessels. Care must be taken if rubber seals are used on the vessel, as the supercritical carbon dioxide may dissolve in the rubber, causing swelling, and the rubber will rupture on depressurization.

    The pressure in the system must be maintained from the pump right through the pressure vessel. This can be either a capillary tube cut to length, or a needle valve which can be adjusted to maintain pressure at different flow rates. In larger systems a back pressure regulator will be used, which maintains pressure upstream of the regulator by means of a spring, compressed air, or electronically driven valve. Whichever is used, heating must be supplied, as the adiabatic expansion of the CO 2 results in significant cooling.

    This is problematic if water or other extracted material is present in the sample, as this may freeze in the restrictor or valve and cause blockages. The supercritical solvent is passed into a vessel at lower pressure than the extraction vessel.

    The density, and hence dissolving power, of supercritical fluids varies sharply with pressure, and hence the solubility in the lower density CO 2 is much lower, and the material precipitates for collection. It is possible to fractionate the dissolved material using a series of vessels at reducing pressure. The CO 2 can be recycled or depressurized to atmospheric pressure and vented.

    For analytical SFE, the pressure is usually dropped to atmospheric, and the now gaseous carbon dioxide bubbled through a solvent to trap the precipitated components. This is an important aspect. The fluid is cooled before pumping to maintain liquid conditions, then heated after pressurization. As the fluid is expanded into the separator, heat must be provided to prevent excessive cooling. For small scale extractions, such as for analytical purposes, it is usually sufficient to pre-heat the fluid in a length of tubing inside the oven containing the extraction cell.

    The restrictor can be electrically heated, or even heated with a hairdryer. For larger systems, the energy required during each stage of the process can be calculated using the thermodynamic properties of the supercritical fluid. This methodology has been employed in studies associated with SFE economics and has found to be an effective and appropriate method for evaluating costs of SFE processes, in particular essential oils [ 1 , 19 , 21 , 25 ].

    This work aims to economically assess the supercritical extraction of waxes from maize stover, a biomass residue found in high abundances, using the methodology proposed by Turton et al.

    A number of assumptions need to be considered when using this methodology which will be highlighted when appropriate. It should be stated that the supercritical extraction of waxes will be an initial pre-treatment step as part of a biorefinery plant whereby the maize stover is passed on prior to SFE for downstream processing and therefore some costs will not be solely attributed to the SFE extraction but to the biorefinery as a whole [ 16 ].

    To understand the true value of the wax, it is imperative to know the composition. Therefore, wax characterization was undertaken. In this study, scCO 2 extraction of waxes from maize stover was conducted on a semi-pilot scale. A plethora of added-value lipophilic molecules were extracted ranging from long-chain fatty acids, n- policosanols, fatty aldehydes, n- alkanes and wax esters to sterols and steroid ketones. Table 1 summarizes the type and quantity of lipophilic molecules constituting the maize stover wax in this study.

    These molecules can be used in a host of applications ranging from nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals to cosmetics lubricants, polishes and detergent formulations [ 16 , 26 , 27 , 28 , 29 , 30 , 31 , 32 , 33 , 34 , 35 ]. Previous studies have shown the possibility of incorporating the fractionated maize stover wax as a natural defoaming agent in washing machine detergent formulations, replacing non-renewable and environmentally hazardous anti-foaming compounds [ 16 ].

    Large abundances of unsaturated fatty acids as well as phytosterols were detected in the wax Unsaturated fatty acids are also very useful platform molecules generating a wide variety of other chemicals [ 38 ]. The high abundance of these molecules is consistent with previous studies on maize stover wax extraction [ 16 ]. Furthermore, in addition to the extraction of high-value waxes, previous studies have shown that scCO 2 extraction also has a positive effect on the downstream processing of maize stover, enhancing yields for ethanol production [ 16 ].

    The cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin content of the stover can be found in supplementary materials Table S2. This highlights the great potential of incorporating scCO 2 extraction as a first-step in a biorefinery, however, this will be meaningless if the extraction process is not economically viable.

    The extraction time was determined by investigating the SFE extraction kinetics using a laboratory-scale supercritical unit. The extraction was carried out for 4 h, collecting samples at specific time intervals. It is assumed that the performance of the industrial scale unit should be the same or very similar to that of the laboratory supercritical unit.

    This should not be a problem if the bed density, particle size and the ratio between the mass of the solid and the CO 2 flow rate are kept constant. Typically, in an SFE process there are three linear regions in the extraction curve profiles; the constant extraction rate CER which corresponds to the extraction of solute molecules that are easily accessible and therefore convection in the solvent film surrounding the biomass particles dominates the mass transport, the falling rate period FER where both convection and diffusion effects play a role in mass transport and the third line which corresponds to a process that is entirely diffusion-controlled in this part of the extraction curve, the extraction rate is very low [ 39 ].

    The maximum extraction rates are normally observed at the CER region and it is therefore necessary, from an economical perspective, to identify the CER region for extraction of solutes from maize stover.

    The total yield extracted after 4 h was found to be 0. The COM of extractives involves three main types of costs; direct Costs DC operational costs which are dependent on the production manufacturing rate and include raw material costs, operational labour, utilities among others , fixed costs FC not dependent on production rate and include territorial taxes, insurance, depreciation etc.

    These three components of the COM are estimated in terms of five main costs: The COM of wax extraction with depreciation was calculated using the following equation [ 24 ]:. A typical industrial supercritical extraction unit used in the extraction of spices, natural pigments, nutraceuticals etc. On a yearly basis, the fraction of investment is calculated by multiplying the total investment by the depreciation rate.

    Another part of the investment is the initial quantity of CO 2 that is required to fill the CO 2 reservoir; however this cost is generally negligible when comparing it to the extraction unit cost. In terms of man-hour per operation-hour, the total C OL is estimated by using tables which are presented by Ulrich The total time when the extraction columns are under operation was taken to be days per year of continuous 24 h per day shift which corresponds to h of continuous extraction.

    This value is solely attributed to the work that the operators will carry out on the SFE of waxes. The operators will have other duties within the biorefinery and their overall wage would therefore be higher.

    Raw material costs for SFE include the solid substrate containing the solute to be extracted as well as the CO 2 that is lost in the extraction process. The cost of the former includes the price of the biomass itself as well as all the cost of all the pre-processing steps leading to the final biomass product used in the extraction such as drying, comminution and cleaning.

    Since wax extraction from maize comes from the waste following harvesting of the grain, i. Since maize stover has significant promise for the production of bioenergy, studies have been carried out on costs of corn stover.

    It is challenging to estimate an appropriate C RM for stover as an extensive literature search showed a large variation in the stover C RM Table 2. In order to determine the effect of the price of the biomass three different calculations based on three different C RM values were carried out: In an industrial SFE unit, the CO 2 is recycled and therefore the only waste involved in the process is the CO 2 which leaks from the system and the exhausted solid.

    The former is negligible while the exhausted stover biomass can be utilized further downstream as part of a biorefinery process or incorporated back into the soil for the uptake of nutrients. Therefore it can be assumed that little or no waste is generated during the extraction process.

    Therefore the C WT can be ignored. Three types of costs are involved in the C UT ; the costs associated with the electric power used in the CO 2 pump, the costs associated with the CO 2 heater and costs associated with refrigeration. In order to calculate electric power costs for the CO 2 pump the pressure and temperature applied during the extraction process as well as the extraction time were determined.

    The pressure and temperature utilized in the extraction process give the specific enthalpy, from which the total energy used in the extraction process can be obtained by multiplying the variation of specific enthalpy by the extraction time and the CO 2 mass flow rate.

    When analyzing the extraction kinetics together with the cost of raw materials and total wax which could be extracted per day, it was found that it is more profitable to carry out 40 min extractions gives a higher overall wax yield per day and reduces the overall costs significantly when compared to 1 h extractions and therefore 40 min was selected as the time for each extraction.

    The experimental bed density of the maize stover was found to be 0. The CO 2 mass flow rate required for the industrial-scale unit would be approximately The mass of carbon dioxide used per hour is Therefore the heat required in MJ , Q, was calculated as follows:.

    Thus the heat energy required is A number of studies have looked into the calorific content of corn stover. An average value from these studies was taken and it is assumed that the energy that is given off when burning dry maize stover is Therefore the amount of maize stover that is required is Therefore the energy which is required to heat the extractor may be obtained by burning A typical refrigeration cycle comprises of a working fluid circulated around a loop which is made up of a compressor, evaporator, expansion valve or turbine and condenser.

    Refrigeration is more expensive than heating since it requires electrical power. In order to determine the refrigeration costs the energy required for refrigeration must be determined by calculating the coefficient of performance, COP. The main cost for the C UT is the electricity that is required to pump the CO 2 at the required pressure and temperature. Raw material costs and labour costs contribute less to the COM. This value is only an estimate and is based on a number of assumptions.

    The costs can be improved by varying some of the parameters. First of all the figure for the amount of biomass that can be loaded into the supercritical extractor was based on milled biomass. In industry, biomass is normally received as pellets pelletized and this increases the biomass loading by three times [ 62 ]. Furthermore, in this study maize stover was used in the process, yielding 0. Maize leaves have a greater wax content than maize stover. If the maize leaves were used, then the wax yield is almost 2.

    This is a four-fold reduction in cost compared to stover wax. Finally, it was assumed in the calculations that the cost of raw materials C RM is solely for the supercritical extraction. As stated previously, the supercritical extraction is only the first step pre-treatment step in a biorefinery and thus the biomass will be passed on within the biorefinery for further processing.

    The cost of raw materials must also be shared throughout the entire processes within the biorefinery. Since the supercritical extraction of waxes would be carried out as part of a biorefinery set-up, the maize stover biomass collected after the extraction would be passed on to the next stage of the biorefinery process and hence further lower the COM of the wax.

    The least elegant and therefore lowest added value-step, would be to simply burn the waste biomass for energy recovery. Herein, cost estimations for electricity generation were carried out as an example of downstream processing of the biomass.

    Different technologies have different energy conversion efficiencies from biomass. However, intense development is occurring within this area and a number of highly efficient technologies are emerging. Therefore two calculations were carried out: The inclusion of a more high value step within the biorefinery such as microwave pyrolysis of the biomass prior to energy recovery or fermentation of the stover for production of ethanol and surfactants, would further reduce the COM [ 15 , 16 ].

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    Supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO 2) is a fluid state of carbon dioxide where it is held at or Supercritical carbon dioxide is used as the extraction solvent for creation of essential oils and other herbal distillates. Its main advantages over. Supercritical CO2 extraction is an efficient and clean way of obtaining extracts that prevent plants' natural properties. This is currently the best method to produce. Many reactions, extractions, separations and other operations in the chemical process industries (CPI) involve the use of organic solvents.

    Key advantages of the supercritical CO2 extraction



    Comments

    bfg2spoil

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO 2) is a fluid state of carbon dioxide where it is held at or Supercritical carbon dioxide is used as the extraction solvent for creation of essential oils and other herbal distillates. Its main advantages over.

    Mu4enuk2

    Supercritical CO2 extraction is an efficient and clean way of obtaining extracts that prevent plants' natural properties. This is currently the best method to produce.

    slayer135

    Many reactions, extractions, separations and other operations in the chemical process industries (CPI) involve the use of organic solvents.

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