thorough review of the potential occupational safety and health issues in the industry. practices in this document are suggestions and do not establish any new. cultivation and the lack of an in-home possession limit mean Policy considerations for access and immediate, anonymous advice on cannabis poisoning;. One of marijuana's greatest advantages as a medicine is its remarkable safety. It has little effect on major physiological functions. There is no known case of a.
with Marijuana? Are Any Considerations Regarding There Tips or Safety
Marijuana is used as a psychoactive i. Many states in the US have now legalized marijuana for medical or recreational use. However, according to federal law, the possession of marijuana cannabis is still illegal in the US, except within approved research settings. The main active chemical in marijuana is THC deltatetrahydrocannabinol , the psychoactive ingredient. The highest concentrations of THC are found in the dried flowers, or buds. When marijuana smoke is inhaled, THC rapidly passes from the lungs into the bloodstream and is carried to the brain and other organs throughout the body.
THC from the marijuana acts on specific receptors in the brain, called cannabinoid receptors, starting off a chain of cellular reactions that finally lead to the euphoria, or "high" that users experience.
Feeling of a relaxed state, euphoria, and an enhanced sensory perception may occur. With higher THC levels in those who are not used to the effects, some people may feel anxious, paranoid, or have a panic attack. Certain areas in the brain, such as the hippocampus, the cerebellum, the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortex, have a higher concentration of cannabinoid receptors.
These areas influence memory, concentration, pleasure, coordination, sensory and time perception. Marijuana's strength is correlated to the amount of THC it contains and the effects on the user depend on the strength or potency of the THC.
Different strains will contain different levels of THC. There are many other chemicals found in marijuana, many of which may adversely affect health.
Marijuana may be smoked as a cigarette called a joint or a nail or in a pipe or bong. It may be smoked in "blunts", which are cigars that have been emptied of tobacco and refilled with marijuana, often in combination with another drug, such as crack.
Some users also mix marijuana into food or use it to brew tea. In states that have now legalized sale of marijuana for recreational use, the marketing of edible products, such as cookies, brownies, and chocolates, are popular for those who prefer not to smoke the product.
Vaporizers are also popular for those who prefer not to inhale smoke. The devices concentrate the THC from the marijuana into a storage unit and the person then inhales the vapor, not the smoke. Some vaporizers use a liquid marijuana extract that can be extremely high in THC content, and can be dangerous to novice users , resulting in emergency room admissions.
In the United States, the Controlled Substances Act CSA of classifies marijuana as a Schedule I substance, which states it has no approved medical use and a high potential for abuse. This Federal definition is highly controversial, and can limit marijuana's availability for clinical research studies.
Prescription medicines containing synthetic cannabinoids THC are also available. Dronabinol, a pharmaceutical form of THC, and nabilone, a synthetic cannabinoid, are approved by the FDA to treat certain conditions. Syndros is a liquid form of dronabinol. Both dronabinol and nabilone are approved to treat patients receiving anti-cancer medicine chemotherapy who have nausea and vomiting, particularly patients who do not respond to other treatments.
Sativex, an oral sublingual spray, is approved for use in multiple sclerosis MS spasticity. In Israel, Sativex is approved for the indications of MS spasticity and for chronic cancer pain.
Sativex is composed of standardized extracts of THC and cannabidiol and is available as an oral mucosal spray formulation. GW Pharmaceuticals and Otsuka Pharmaceuticals announced results of three US Phase 3 trials in for the use of Sativex for the treatment of pain in patients with advanced cancer who experience inadequate analgesia during optimized chronic opioid therapy.
According to the study results, Sativex did not meet the primary endpoint of demonstrating a statistically significant difference from placebo for pain control. Epidiolex comes as an oral solution. These forms of epilepsy -- Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome -- are severe, rare, and begin in childhood. Epidiolex is the first FDA-approved drug that contains a purified drug substance derived from marijuana -- CBD -- and the first treatment for Dravet syndrome.
In pivotal Phase III studies with patients with either seizure type, Epidiolex, as an adjunct with other seizure drugs, was shown to be effective in reducing the frequency of seizures when compared with placebo.
Common side effects with Epidiolex included sleepiness, diarrhea, sedation and lethargy, signs of possible liver damage, and decreased appetite, among others. Medications listed in Schedule V have a proven medical use but a low potential for abuse. In the past survey year , In the same survey, past year marijuana use among adolescents aged 12 to 16 years dropped from Side effects of marijuana use will be variable from person to person, depending upon strength and amount of marijuana used and if the user is occasionally or chronically exposed to THC.
Side effects can be magnified in older people. Reaction time may be impaired while driving. NIDA research shows that drivers have slower reaction times, impaired judgment, and problems responding to signals and sounds if driving while under the influence of THC.
Panic attacks, paranoia and psychosis may occur acutely and be more common in psychiatric patients, a reported by Heller. For chronic users, the impact on memory and learning can last for days or weeks after its acute effects wear off, as noted by the NIDA. Marijuana, if purchased on the street, may be cut or substituted with substances that can lead to unknown, dangerous side effects.
THC in marijuana is strongly absorbed by fatty tissues in various organs. Generally, traces of THC can be detected by standard urine testing methods several days or more after a smoking session. In heavy chronic users, traces can sometimes be detected for weeks after they have stopped using marijuana. Long-term abuse of marijuana may lead to dependence in some people.
McKenna, et al have reported on the addicting potential of marijuana, noting that "it is an erroneous belief widely held by the general public, and among many physicians, that marijuana is not addicting. Withdrawal symptoms can occur upon abrupt cessation of the drug, including:. Marijuana also may affect mental health.
Also, rates of marijuana use are often higher in people with symptoms of depression or anxiety, as reported by the NIDA. There have been no reports of THC overdose leading to death. Shortly after smoking marijuana the heart rate increases drastically and may remain elevated for up to 3 hours.
This effect may be enhanced if other drugs are taken with marijuana. One study from Mittleman, et al has suggested that the risk of heart attack may increase by up to 4. The effect may be due to the increased heart rate, as well as altered heart rhythms. The risk of heart attack may be greater in those with specific risk factors such as patients with high blood pressure, heart arrhythmia, or other cardiac disease.
Harvard Health also reports that the risk of a heart attack is several times higher in the hour after smoking marijuana than it would be normally, and this should be a red flag for anyone with a history of heart disease. The risk of stroke may be increased, as well.
After smoking marijuana, the bronchial passage relaxes and becomes enlarged. Marijuana smoke contains many of the same cancer-causing chemicals found in cigarette smoke, often in greater quantities, as reported by Mehmedic and colleagues. Both types of smoke contain cancer-causing nitrosamines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, vinyl chlorides, and phenol per research reported by Martinasek.
Studies have shown that marijuana smoke contains 50 to 70 percent more carcinogenic hydrocarbons than tobacco smoke, and is an irritant to the lungs.
Marijuana users tend to inhale more deeply and hold their breath longer than tobacco smokers do, which further increases lung exposure to carcinogenic smoke. People who smoke marijuana often have the same respiratory problems as cigarette smokers.
These individuals may have daily cough and phlegm, symptoms of chronic bronchitis, shortness of breath, chest tightness, wheezing and more frequent chest colds. A systematic review of the respiratory effects of inhalational marijuana from Martinasek, et al indicates that there is a risk of lung cancer from inhalational marijuana as well as an association between inhalational marijuana and spontaneous pneumothorax, emphysema, or COPD.
For example, teenagers may say, "it is harmless because it is natural," "it is not addictive," or "it does not affect my thinking or my grades. Regular use of marijuana can lead to significant problems including Cannabis Use Disorder. Signs that your child has developed Cannabis Use Disorder include using marijuana more often than intended, having cravings, or when using interferes with other activities.
If someone with Cannabis Use Disorder stops using suddenly, they may suffer from withdrawal symptoms that, while not dangerous, can cause irritability, anxiety, and changes in mood, sleep, and appetite. Medical Marijuana Some teens justify use of marijuana because it is used for medical purposes. Marijuana use with a prescription for a medical reason is called "medical marijuana. In some states, children of any age can get medical marijuana if they have a "qualifying medical condition.
In most states that allow medical marijuana, the marijuana is not regulated and therefore is not checked for ingredients, purity, strength or safety. There is no evidence that medical marijuana is any safer than other marijuana. Conclusion Marijuana use in teens can lead to long-term consequences.
Teens rarely think they will end up with problems related to marijuana use, so it is important to begin talking about the risks with your child early and continue this discussion over time. Talking with your child about marijuana can help delay the age of first use and help protect their brain.
By creating a culture of openness, trust and honesty, you can help employees feel more comfortable with their needs, while encouraging respect for your policy choices. Now more than ever, employers and employees must know how to discuss and deal with marijuana at work. The best thing you can do to protect your business and your people is to stay informed, be prepared for questions that may come up, and understand the implications of marijuana — both medical and recreational — on your current human resources policies and group benefits plans.
Finally, ensure you consult legal counsel when creating or amending any policies. Elijah Moore is the co-founder of Collage. The Globe and Mail Small Business Summit is a one-day conference of insightful sessions, proven business growth strategies and innovative ideas from the country's brightest business leaders. Full details at globesummits. This is a space where subscribers can engage with each other and Globe staff.
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Five tips for employers creating a marijuana policy at work
Apr 17, Growing Worker Safety Concerns in the Medical Marijuana Industry federal officials in any of the 30 states/localities and the District of Columbia where a comprehensive guide for developing a worker health and safety program. Personal Protective Equipment Considerations for Cannabis Employees. Apr 1, As part of an emerging industry, growers are still on a learning curve when a culture of honesty, with the goal of ensuring you are running a safe and secure operation. Unlike in most industries, security systems for the cannabis industry .. Gallo issues a caution regarding armed guards, however: While. While there is an association between cannabis and quitting school, traits or family issues, for example—that increase the risks of purchase safe, quality- controlled cannabis from one of the.