CBD has a long and rich history with mankind. Humans have been cultivating cannabis since almost years BCE. In , scientists and physicians began . Project CBD started in as a journalistic group covering the story of CBD's industry of CBD-rich concentrates, oil extracts, and other CBD-rich products. CBD oil is incredibly popular today, but modern CBD history actually stretches back to the s, when scientists first isolated and began.
CBD Oil of History
The limited availability of clinical research to support or refute therapeutic claims and indications for use of cannabis for medicinal purposes has frequently left both state legislative authorities and clinicians to rely on anecdotal evidence, which has not been subjected to the same rigors of peer review and scrutiny as well-conducted, randomized trials, to validate the safety and efficacy of medicinal cannabis therapy. Furthermore, although individual single-entity pharmaceutical medications, such as dronabinol, have been isolated, evaluated, and approved for use by the FDA, a plant cannot be patented and mass produced by a corporate entity.
The Schedule I designation of cannabis causes hospitals and other care settings that receive federal funding, either through Medicare reimbursement or other federal grants or programs, to pause to consider the potential for loss of these funds should the federal government intercede and take action if patients are permitted to use this therapy on campus.
Similarly, licensed practitioners registered to certify patients for state medicinal cannabis programs may have comparable concerns regarding jeopardizing their federal DEA registrations and ability to prescribe other controlled substances as well as jeopardizing Medicare reimbursements.
Attorney General Eric Holder recommended that enforcement of federal marijuana laws not be a priority in states that have enacted medicinal cannabis programs and are enforcing the rules and regulations of such a program; despite this, concerns persist. The argument for or against the use of medicinal cannabis in the acute care setting encompasses both legal and ethical considerations, with the argument against use perhaps seeming obvious on its surface.
States adopting medical cannabis laws may advise patients to utilize the therapy only in their own residence and not to transport the substances unless absolutely necessary. Canada has adopted national regulations to control and standardize dried cannabis for medical use. The argument can be made that an herb- or plant-based entity cannot be identified by pharmacy personnel as is commonly done for traditional medicines, although medicinal cannabis dispensed through state programs must be labeled in accordance with state laws.
Dispensing and storage concerns, including an evaluation of where and how this product should be stored e. Inpatient use of medicinal cannabis also carries implications for nursing and medical staff members. The therapy cannot be prescribed, and states may require physicians authorizing patient use to be registered with local programs.
Despite the complexities in the logistics of continuing medicinal cannabis in the acute care setting, proponents of palliative care and continuity of care argue that prohibiting medicinal cannabis use disrupts treatment of chronic and debilitating medical conditions. Patients have been denied this therapy during acute care hospitalizations for reasons stated above. Legislation in Minnesota, as one example, has been amended to permit hospitals as facilities that can dispense and control cannabis use; similar legislative actions protecting nurses from criminal, civil, or disciplinary action when administering medical cannabis to qualified patients have been enacted in Connecticut and Maine.
Despite lingering controversy, use of botanical cannabis for medicinal purposes represents the revival of a plant with historical significance reemerging in present day health care. Legislation governing use of medicinal cannabis continues to evolve rapidly, necessitating that pharmacists and other clinicians keep abreast of new or changing state regulations and institutional implications. Ultimately, as the medicinal cannabis landscape continues to evolve, hospitals, acute care facilities, clinics, hospices, and long-term care centers need to consider the implications, address logistical concerns, and explore the feasibility of permitting patient access to this treatment.
Whether national policy—particularly with a new presidential administration—will offer some clarity or further complicate regulation of this treatment remains to be seen. The authors report no commercial or financial interests in regard to this article.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List P T v. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Open in a separate window. Access to marijuana through home cultivation, dispensaries, or some other system that is likely to be implemented;. Allows either smoking or vaporization of some kind of marijuana products, plant material, or extract.
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Sanford hospital patient denied medical marijuana. Minnesota hospitals will be able to dispense medical marijuana. By Troy Farah September 17, 4: Derived from marijuana, CBD, or cannabidiol, could help treat a range of medical conditions, early research suggests — but its Schedule I status has made it hard to study, leaving researchers and patients in the dark. CBD has been suggested as a treatment for everything from anxiety to addiction to depression , but much of the research is still preliminary.
Accordingly, global policy around the molecule is very much in flux. The World Anti-Doping Agency recently began allowing it , but still bans smoking pot. Almost 40 states have adopted programs encouraging the explosive growth of, and research into, industrial hemp. Some public schools even permit students to use CBD, though others have recently prohibited it.
Some governmental bodies remain firmly against the substance, however. The Drug Enforcement Administration still considers cannabidiol a Schedule I narcotic, meaning it has a high potential for abuse and no medicinal benefits, though that could soon change. Even dogs are getting in on the craze.
CBD is even making its way into more traditional pharmaceutical settings. The drug is a prescription form of plant-extracted cannabidiol used to treat rare forms of epilepsy. Matchett and his assistants dried and beat the plants, shook out the coarse stems, ground up the rest and soaked it in 95 percent ethanol until they were left with a crude red oil.
Instead, Adams found something quite the opposite. These are the two main receptors in the endocannabinoid system, which regulates memory, appetite, immune function, sleep, and more. Accordingly, drugs that interact with CB 1 or CB 2 receptors can influence those things as well. But CBD also has more than 65 different suggested molecular targets, including opioid and serotonin receptors, and certain enzymes and ion channels.
Many of these may turn out to be duds, but others could represent new targets for the treatment of neurological disorders and more. The array of possible destinations means that the compound could be useful for treating a range of conditions, such as autism , graft-versus-host-disease , liver diseases , multiple sclerosis , and some cancers.
Bhattacharyya and colleagues recently published a study in JAMA Psychiatry finding that CBD may normalize dysfunction in brain regions associated with psychosis. This makes some sense, as CB 1 receptors are pervasive in the brain, and can modulate many neurotransmitters associated with mental health, including glutamate, dopamine, and serotonin. We do not have that kind of data yet with cannabidiol. Why do we know so little about cannabidiol?
A bill currently making its way through Congress, could change that, though, expanding licenses marijuana research. It recently passed the House Judiciary Committee and is making its way to the House of Representatives at large. The strongest case for the medicinal benefits of CBD comes from epilepsy treatments, evidence for which dates back to the beginning of recorded history.
CBD History: The Past, Present And Future Of Using CBD
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a phytocannabinoid discovered in It is one of some identified It may be supplied as CBD oil containing only CBD as the active ingredient (no added THC or terpenes), .. it would regard CBD products, including CBD oil, as a novel food in the UK, having no history of use before May CBD oil was first discovered back in , but the first product containing this cannabis extract was only sold openly in the UK within the last. CBD in combination with THC has received regulatory approvals in several of ever having used the substance with a history of vaporizing marijuana (odds.