Building good relationships with other people can greatly reduce stress and anxiety in your life. In fact, improving your social support is linked to better mental health in general, Myth #1: Assertiveness means getting your own way all the time. Request PDF on ResearchGate | Improved Social Interaction, Recognition such as working memory, attention, and decision making [1,30]. Improving social skills can open doors to new friendships and new career 1. Behave Like a Social Person. You can behave like a more social creature, If you have a lot of negative thoughts about your social interactions.
Interaction Social 1. Improved
The problem in China is also serious; 1. At present, although cure for ASD is still unavailable, a number of treatments and interventions can help children with ASD improve their social and communication skills and function better.
Many studies have reported on the importance and benefits of exercise and physical activity and the risk of physical inactivity for children, especially for children with disabilities [ 6 — 8 ]. Children with ASD are perhaps in more risking situation because of their limited opportunities to participate in physical activities.
These children have fewer opportunities to engage in physical activity and play with their peers because of their impairments in social interactions and communication skills [ 9 , 10 ]. Children with ASD also tend to be used to passive type of activities e.
Undergoing the typical children development stage, fewer opportunities to engage in physical activity are more likely to influence their behaviors [ 11 ].
Physical activity is an important contributor for health in populations with developmental disabilities, and the benefits of physical activities for children with ASD have been studied [ 12 ]. It has been found that physical activities help improve a number of the many deficits and challenges that children with ASD must confront [ 13 , 14 ]. The study also indicated that participation in physical activity allows children with ASD to experience a fun activity with their peers and to develop critical interpersonal skills [ 15 ].
In addition, some results of studies reported that several benefits derived from physical activity are related to mental and psychosocial wellbeing; for instance, physical activity could improve psychological wellbeing [ 16 , 17 ], leading to positive self-esteem, behavior, and happiness in children with ASD [ 4 ].
At present, researchers and experts believe that certain social activity oriented interventions and treatments can help children with ASD change their behaviors and function better in their normal environment. With the increasing awareness of ASD in many countries, a number of intervention programs have been devised, implemented, and found to be effective on certain typical behaviors of children with ASD e.
The standardized interventions and treatments targeting the behaviors of children with ASD have already yielded certain beneficial effects and achieved a moderate degree of success. As the social activity related interventions involve many physical interactions, more and more researchers in many countries have also begun to focus on the effects of physical activity and exercise on fading and redirecting the autistic behaviors of children with ASD.
Two programs use a land-based aerobic exercise program and an aquatic exercise program as an intervention to analyze the effectiveness of changing certain inappropriate behaviors of children with ASD.
Positive effects of physical activity interventions have been found effective on social behavior and social function [ 19 ], communication enhancement [ 20 ], exercise ability, body mass index [ 12 ], sensory and feeling [ 19 ], stereotypical behavioral patterns [ 21 ], and physical exercise participation [ 22 ]. As the impairments and difficulties in social interaction and communication are the primary characteristics for children with ASD, a lack of social skill and communication skill can lead them to a social isolation or withdrawal situations [ 23 ].
Therefore, an intervention focusing on their social and communication skills is critical to the successful development of social, emotional, and improvement of communication skill of children with ASD.
At present, little evidence is available about the utilization of modified games and physical activities as an intervention on fading and redirecting the autistic behaviors of children with ASD; few studies had been conducted especially in China.
Therefore, this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a structured physical activity program on social interaction and communication skill of children with ASD. Fifty children with ASD, age from five to eight years old, in a special school of Shandong province, were recruited based on the DSM-V criteria [ 1 ] and randomly divided into experimental and control groups.
Twenty-five children with ASD were placed in the experimental group in which the structured physical activity program was used as intervention. The other twenty-five children with ASD as the control group participated in regular physical activity. Four children with ASD withdrew from the experimental group, and five children withdrew from the control group for different reasons. A comparison was conducted regarding the baseline data between the experimental group and the control group.
The demographic variables between the experimental group and control group were listed in Table 1 all. There were four instruments that had been used to measure the effects of structured physical activity program on social interaction and communication skills of children with ASD. These instruments included the following: For the current study, the area of social interaction with total 34 items was used to evaluate the social interaction of children with ASD.
The Social Skills Improvement System Rating Scales SSIS-RS was used for evaluating social skills, problem behaviors, and the academic competence of students from the perspectives of teachers, parents, and students and for the improvement of social skills in child with social and behavioral problems [ 24 ].
A quasi-experimental design with a control group and an experimental group was utilized to investigate the effects of the week structured physical activity program on social interaction and communication for children with ASD. The present study adopted the pretest, interim-test, and posttest design and conducted testing at three time intervals to monitor progressive changes in social interaction and communication throughout the week intervention.
The week structured physical activity program was implemented with 60 minutes per session and total 24 exercise sessions. The experimental and control groups completed the pretest 1 week before the intervention program began. The interim-test was conducted halfway through the intervention, and the posttest was administered one week after the week intervention program.
Figure 1 is the framework of intervention. This program has distinctive features and advantages. First, the structured physical activity program was designed based on guidelines and recommendations for children with ASD e. Second, it was a structured program specialized in the needs of social interaction and communication, which comprised four parts: Moreover, all of the procedures and contents promoted the targeted behaviors.
When participants completed the entire session, they have experienced significantly increased frequency of their social interactions and communications with others. During each session, children with ASD were placed into a group of five, each group was assigned the same teacher, and each session was conducted using the same content and routine to provide the participants with a sense of consistency.
The structured physical activity program was conducted in the fitness room or on the playground of the Special School of Shandong Province, and the school is equipped with many classrooms for various teaching purposes.
The detailed contents of the structured physical activity program are listed in Table 2. This model provided the individual with a structured and organized physical environment, the schedules and work systems, clear expectations, and the use of visual materials. Structured teaching also involved utilizing various strategies and principles for intervention and treatment. The intervention program also included a reward system to encourage the children to be active and willing to participate in the physical activity program.
A part of each session was dedicated to the whole-group exercise; when they finished an exercise or won, the teacher gave them a high five.
If they reacted by returning the high five, this was also considered an interaction. When the participants finished one part or the entire session, they received one sticker; once they collected a specific number of stickers, they could trade them in for a gift or an item they desired from the reward desk e. In this study, the data, investigator, and methodological triangulation were applied. Data triangulation involved collecting data on the perspectives of the teachers, parents, and volunteers at different time points.
Investigator triangulation was conducted by having more than one researcher analyze the data and having member checking. Methodological triangulation concerned the use of both qualitative and quantitative methods. The quantitative method was the primary method used, whereas the qualitative methods were supplementary, employed to demonstrate the effects of the structured physical activity program on social interaction and communication in children with ASD.
Data collection was composed of four parts, as shown in Table 3. Means and standard deviations at each time within each domain and subdomains were calculated. The primary analysis was to identify the difference between control group and experimental group after 12 weeks of physical activity program intervention. The semistructured interviews and open-ended questionnaires were distributed to the parents and volunteers, respectively, after the week physical activity program.
We added questions to the margins wherever further clarification was required. The parents and volunteers were also asked to return the member checking data directly to the researcher within 1 week of having received the transcript. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effects of the physical activity program on social interactions and communication in children with ASD. After data collection, SPSS version The qualitative approach involving the semistructured interviews and open-ended questionnaire was analyzed using the NVivo version 8 qualitative software package.
The data indicated that the social skills of children with ASD in experimental group were significantly improved after week intervention.
In relation to the social skill scores in the SSIS between the experimental group and control group, a two-way repeated measures ANOVA was conducted to examine whether the structured physical activity program resulted in an increase in social skills between the groups across pretest, interim-test, and posttest see Table 4. Before the intervention, no statistically significant differences were found between the experimental and control groups in overall social skills.
As shown in Table 4 , in the interim-test, although there some changes occurred, there were no significant differences between the groups. After the week physical activity program, a significant improvement was found in social skill scores for the experimental group compared with the control group , which had a statistically significant effect. These results indicated that the structured physical activity program had a positive influence on social skills of children with ASD and improved their overall social skill scores in the SSIS.
Figure 2 displays the improvement trends in social skill scores for the experimental and control groups. The figure shows that the experimental group exhibited a more noticeable improvement over time, with significant differences in social skills from the pretest to the interim-test, and then to the posttest.
By comparison, no significant differences were found in social skills among three testing periods for the control group. The arrangement of the physical environment should be effective.
Clearly stated instructional objectives and behavioral expectations should be provided throughout lessons and social interactions. Tailor social skill interventions to individual student needs. Utilize various data collection strategies to collect behavioral information e, g. Investigate strategies designed to meet particular social skills deficits and ensure the intervention is implemented with fidelity e. Model and provide opportunities to practice effective communication skills.
Teach students how to listen to others and waiting to talk, taking turns in a conversation, suggesting an idea, providing praise to others, saying thank-you, and apologizing. Communication skills can be taught through role play, games, and practice. Utilize collaborative learning environments. Incorporate collaborative learning activities within the curriculum to encourage social interaction.
Utilizing collaborative groups will allow students to practice and observe appropriate social interactions with peer. Converse and collaborate with parents to develop a plan that can be used at home and in school. Utilize various forms of media when teaching social skills. Allow students to read books about various conflict situations and verbally discuss solutions.
About the Author Tammy L. If you find that you speak quickly because you're nervous or anxious, try speaking at about a third of your normal speed. This trick is called slow talk, and it not only helps you speak clearly, it can also help you feel calmer. Learn the right manner in which to initiate a conversations. You can begin by saying something that is generally or universally true, rather than overly personal because that might seem to be insulting or offensive to some.
Comment on the weather, or maybe some current event you heard about in the news recently. You could compliment someone on what they are wearing or the way they have done their hair. Here a few examples: Find ways to extend conversations. After speaking about general issues such as current events, try bringing up more intimate or a more relatable topic.
Asking questions that delve a little deeper below the surface. For example, asking polite questions about their family, employment, or hobbies can lengthen a conversation and make it more meaningful. Remember that a conversation takes two people, so avoid speaking too little or vice versa. Try as much as possible to ask open-ended questions; in other words, start with a "How," a "Why," or a "What," instead of those questions to which there can only be a plain and simple "Yes" or "No" answer.
That doesn't encourage the person you're speaking to speak more. Here are some ways to lengthen conversations and give them depth: Steer clear of inflammatory topics. When interacting with a person you don't know all too well, there are some subjects you should steer clear of.
While it appears appropriate to ask someone a question about an upcoming election, it might be offensive to ask someone who they plan to vote for. While it seems okay to ask someone about their religious affiliation generally, it might be a bad idea to ask just about anyone about the church's views on sexuality. Instead of abruptly cutting them off and walking away, try to be polite about it. Tell them in a sweet, non-offensive way that that you have to take their leave, and give them the impression that you enjoyed the interaction.
It was nice talking to you. Method 1 Quiz How do you start a conversation with someone you do not know well? Impress them with a fact about an interest you are strongly passionate about. Begin with something general, like an observation about the weather or traffic. Ask a personal question to avoid boring small talk. Pay attention to your body language.
Our gestures often communicate messages more powerfully than words. Be wary and take time to reflect on messages you give others through your posture, eye contact, and facial expressions. If you are avoiding eye contact, standing far away, or crossing your arms, you are likely telling others that you don't want to interact. This way you are certainly more likely to create a good impression on people you speak to. Observe how other people behave in social situations.
Watch their body language closely and consider why they are better at interacting with others socially. Observe their posture, their gestures, their facial expressions, and how often they make eye contact. Consider how you might replicate or improve upon your own body language while talking to people. Determine 'how well' the people you're observing know each other. This is important because the body language shared among close friends who are talking differs completely from that displayed by two complete strangers even in an ordinary setting.
Mentally take notes about what you see and observe. This will both guide and help you to become more aware of your own body language.
Try not to focus too much on yourself and making adjustments in the moments, though. Focus on the people with whom you're interacting and practice new skills with yourself or a close friend later. Improve your non-verbal communication skills at home. Home is often the best place to start learning something new because you won't be as inhibited in a familiar setting.
You could try making a video of yourself in conversation with your family members, and then consider how you can improve your body language. You could also practice non-verbal gesturing in front of a mirror.
Enlist the help of family members you are close to, or even close friends- this is another effective approach, as they can give you honest useful feedback that no one else would. Some other tips include 'pulling back' your shoulders, keeping your spine straight, and your chin up, parallel to the floor. One of the best things about practicing at home is that it's obviously a private and a low-pressure environment.
It just you and the mirror! Have fun trying out different types of body language signs and gestures. Focus on a keeping a genuine smile right from the moment you meet a person.
A smile is universally known to be a great way to show you are open to others, and makes people feel at ease. Just focusing on smiling when you meet people will make things a little easier. Practice your eye contact.
Work on making more eye contact as you get comfortable with it. Don't stare people in the eye, especially if you're uncomfortable with it because that could prove annoying. Whenever you think about eye contact, make yourself look at someone in the eye for just about seconds only.
As this gets easier, you'll be natural about it. If you're not right next to someone, look at their earlobe, or the spot right between their eyes. This is faking it, but people won't be able to tell the difference. If you're nervous making eye contact, some social psychologists suggest that you practice doing with people on TV.
Put on the news and try keeping eye contact with the anchor. Spend a little extra time on your self while getting ready to go out. You'll feel more confident with the way you look.
Spending a little extra time on making sure you like the way you look and feel confident about yourself will make all other social situations easier to be in.
Develop a hygiene routine, buy some new clothes or a pair of shoes you liked, and dressing your best not only improve self-confidence they make you naturally more social, too. Method 2 Quiz True or False: Find a place where people seem easy going.
Starting a conversation with an unknown person will seem less risky and more acceptable to everyone there. Some situations seem easier than others, especially when initiating social interaction.
Supermarkets or banks are more often than not among the worst places to initiate a conversation with a total stranger people just want to get their groceries and be done with it. Coffee shops, sporting events, and community centers can be great places to start talking to great new people.
To meet new people, try joining a group such as an amateur sports club or a book club. A fitness class is often a great place to start a conversation. You can also look for groups online to find meetings of people interested in the same things as you.
Start small, chatting with service people that helped you out to get started.
Tips for Encouraging Positive Interactions Between Students With Behavioral Disorders and Peers
1. Neuropsychopharmacology. Jun;42(7) doi: Improved Social Interaction, Recognition and Working Memory with. improvement in social interaction was shown by the untrained peers— experience .. 1. Does the child with autism show non-negative response or initiation?. 3 Proven Conversation Tips to Improve Social Interactions. by Patrick King [ option 1: last weekend I did something interesting ] [option 2: I.